Internet of things (IoT): Overview


Within the past decades, the world has introduced lots of technologies and their applications, some of them are Blockchain Technology, Cloud Services, AR/VR, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Artificial Intelligence and the last but not least Internet-of-Things or IoT.

Indeed, we-all have connected via smartphones, more specifically through World Wide Web or internet, which can be understood as a man-to-man interaction. But within IoT, we are not talking about men-to-men only, we are going for machines too. So, how do machines interact with men (machine-to-man), or other machines (machine-to-machine)?

There are a lot of business applications of IoT, or it can be said that IoT applications are everywhere from home appliances automation to large industries such as healthcare, vehicle automation, retail, medical, and many more.


What is IoT?

In 1999, a British technology pioneer Kevin Ashtosh, Co-founder of Auto-ID in Massachusetts Institute of Technology, used the phrase “Internet-of-Things”. Although, it took almost one decade to evolve, because the technology was not developed enough. Within 1980s and 1990s (could be earlier too), the concept of technology of adding sensors and intelligence with the objects was discussed frequently. Even then the evolvement of “IoT” was quite slow due to lack of technologies, or big-bulky chips and other hardware equipment.

“The Internet-of-Things or IoT can be referred as the technology behind all those devices which are connected to internet for sensing, collecting, and sending the data to software. It can also be understood as the technology through someone can communicate to the internet connected physical devices without any computer.”




Here, to understand IoT working process, we have listed majorly four components used in IoT working applications, one by one.

Four Main Components of “Internet-of-Things” or IoT are:

  1. Sensors/Device
  2. Connectivity
  3. Data Science
  4. User Interface

Sensors/ Devices

Sensors or devices use to help in collecting very minute data from the outer surrounding environment. It can be of any dimensions or complexities based on its types of sensors from a single functional like, temperature sensor, to a complex like, full video feed.

A device can have multiple sensors within itself. For example: our phone keeps a number of sensors such as GPS, Camera, Accelerator, Fingerprint Sensor, and many more. Although, phone has its own different complicated ways to use the all sensors.

The common thing is, sensors or devices collects the data from the surrounding environment irrespective of its type (standalone or multiple).


After collecting data from surrounding environments, devices or sensors send it to the cloud infrastructure via a number of transporters or mediums. Some of them are:

  • Cellular Networks: It can be understood as the network used to communicate, and which is distributed over land areas known as “cells”, all of them are served by fixed-location transceivers. And the end-terminal of this communication network is wireless. 
  • Satellite Networks: These networks’ aim is just to connect anytime, anywhere. No matter what? There are two types of satellite networks; LEO (Low-earth-orbit) and GEO (Geostationary). But mostly the LEO satellite networks are used within the satellite phone, and other communication solutions.
  • Wi-Fi: It is a wireless technology, which is used to connect electronic-smart-devices to the internet. These devices can be laptops, smartphones, tablets, and other equipment (printer and video cameras).
  • Bluetooth: It is a short-range wireless technology, use to exchange data between two fixed devices through UHF radio waves in the ISM bands.
  • Wide-Area Networks: it is a telecommunication network that extends over a large geographic area for the primary purpose of computing network.
  • Low-Power Wide Area Networks: It is a type of wireless telecommunication wide area network designed to allow long-range communication at a low bit rate among things.

Data Processing
 Data Processing come into play when the collected data of sensors or devices is sent to the cloud, the software starts performing various data processes according to the programs.

It includes each type of processing; it can be a simpler processing task such as measuring the temperature of AC or heaters within an acceptable range. It can also include various complex such as identifying objects using computer vision on video.


User Interface

The required information is sent to the end-user by triggering alarms on user interface or notifying through text or emails.

However, there are various types of IoT application, some of them requires active users, some of them use notification systems, it also possible that within some of the cases, user interface is not required, or we can say that there are also chances of introducing automation, for example:

  • Suppose that users are having cameras within their home or building, and if they really want to monitor through these cameras. Then, they will have to monitor actively.
  • Suppose user detects some changes in their refrigerators, they can do remotely adjustments, whatever they want.
  • The third case is all about automation, suppose that you have kept a face lock on your smartphone, then it will automatically unlock whenever it will recognize. And the smartphone won’t accept any other user except you.

Pros and Cons of IoT

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